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Scientists write film into bacteria DNA

It is now the first movie ever to be encoded in the DNA of a living cell, where it can be retrieved at will and multiplied indefinitely as the host divides and grows.Using the popular gene-editing tool CRISPR, which stands for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, the scientists encoded the individual pixels of each image into the E. coli cells.For recovering the data, the team sequenced the DNA and made use of custom computer code to decipher the genetic data that effectively reproduced the original image.Led by Jiyung Shin, of UCB’s Innovative Genomics Institute, the team report identification of an inhibitor protein that can block the function of the “molecular scissors” that enable CRISPR technology to cut strands of DNA in order to remove and replace parts for the genome.”What we want this system to be used for, eventually, is not to encode information that we already have, but for a way for cells to go out and gather information that we don’t have access to”, Shipman told Popular Science.The DNA was fed to E. coli bacteria using a technique called electroporation, which placed the DNA pieces in the bacteria cells.The geneticists ended up with a sequence of DNA molecules that represented the entirety of the film.”Jenny’s data suggests that there is an ideal time window for letting Cas9 do its job and then turning it off after that amount of time has passed”, Bondy-Denomy said. One possible use would be to record the molecular events that drive the evolution of cell types, such as the formation of neurons during brain development. Muybridge pushed the camera technology of the time to its limits, using what was then high-speed imaging to capture incredible shots of people and other animals in motion.The proteins have been shown to decrease unwanted side effects by as much as a factor of four, and could be used alongside Crispr-Cas9 to treat diseases including cancer and sickle cell disease. (Bacteria do this naturally.) Later, the scientists sequenced the bacterial DNA to reconstruct the movie with 90 percent accuracy. This place defines guide RNA (trnk), which binds to a specific site of recognition by the principle of complementarity.The use of CRISPR in storing sequences of DNA in bacteria was previously described by the researchers. In a study published today (July 12) in Science Advances, researchers have now used one of those anti-CRISPR agents to reduce off-target effects in Cas9-mediated genome editing in human cells. The bacterium then uses the stored DNA to recognize the virus and defend against future attacks.However, “as promising as this was, we did not know what would happen when we tried to track about a hundred sequences at once, or if it would work at all”, said Seth Shipman, a research fellow in genetics working with Church.”DNA is an excellent medium for archiving data”, the researchers write.To build the prototype molecular recorder, the Harvard team hacked the immune defences that protect bacteria from invading viruses.About the National Institutes of Health (NIH): NIH, the nation’s medical research agency, includes 27 Institutes and Centers and is a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. And this legendary, Nobel Prize-worthy tool basically acts like a computer’s copy/paste function – allowing scientists to manipulate DNA in all sorts of ways. The researchers can only recover the information on the ordering of frames from single cells, according to the paper.